China to spend more on farm subsidies
BEIJING -- China will increase its 2014 budget for farming subsidies by 10 percent from last year's 1.6 trillion yuan ($261.09 billion), a top government official says, even as critics argue that subsidies play a limited role in boosting food pro...
BEIJING -- China will increase its 2014 budget for farming subsidies by 10 percent from last year's 1.6 trillion yuan ($261.09 billion), a top government official says, even as critics argue that subsidies play a limited role in boosting food production.
Maintaining food security is one of China's top priorities for this year, as rapid urbanization and pollution threaten to swallow up arable farmland.
Beijing aims to step up its annual grain output by providing subsidies to farmers and investing in rural infrastructure, after more than 200 million migrant workers moved to cities, slashing the rural workforce and boosting food demand.
The government has increased direct subsidies paid to farmers who plant crops from 11.41 yuan ($1.86) per mu (0.16 acres) in 2004 to more than 90 yuan per mu in 2012.
But many farmers have switched to more profitable cash crops such as fruit or vegetables or simply abandoned their land to earn higher incomes in the city.
"It's very hard to check whether a household is planting grain or vegetables and planting eight or ten mu," says Agriculture Minister Han Changfu.
"I have also heard talk that after getting the subsidies, farmers don't plant the land and go to work in cities."
The direct subsidies, typically paid out to villages before being directly transferred to farmers' bank accounts, also do little to boost yields, experts say.
"The way they pay out the subsidies is really not tied to production," says Kevin Chen, China program leader at the International Food Policy Research Institute.
"Money spent on subsidies is less effective than that spent on research and development," he adds.
But Han indicated that China could continue to substantially increase its farming subsidies, which currently make up about 3 percent of farmers' income, compared with around 40 percent in Western economies.
"We have limited agricultural resources and our farmers' incomes are low ... whether we are looking at our farmers' conditions or WTO (World Trade Organization) requirements, we still have room for more subsidies," he says.
Pan Chenjun, senior analyst at Rabobank in Beijing, says the subsidies generally achieve their main aim of generating a stable supply of crops or pork.
"When the sector reaches a new level of development, the government may adjust it to focus on more efficient production, for consolidation of the supply chain, for example."
Besides paying direct subsidies to farmers, China also has an annual stockpiling program in which the government sets a minimum purchase price of commodities, such as corn, rice and cotton, to safeguard farmers' income.
China also says it would work through the rest of the year to deepen reforms to allow the transfer of land to increase farmers' property earnings.
China's regulations give farmers the right to use, but not directly sell or mortgage land. Land must first be acquired by a local government before being used for development.
China, which produced 602 million metric tons of grain last year, has set a target to raise grain production capacity by 50 million metric tons each year.