Creating cow partnerships

BROOKINGS, S.D. -- According to the United States Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Statistics Service, South Dakota's cow herd totals ranked fifth nationally -- up by 5 percent from 2012.

BROOKINGS, S.D. -- According to the United States Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Statistics Service, South Dakota's cow herd totals ranked fifth nationally -- up by 5 percent from 2012.

With grazing and pasture resources difficult to find in some areas of the state, cattle producers may consider looking to other areas of the state for grazing resources, says Jim Krantz, South Dakota State University Extension cow-calf field specialist. Cow lease/share arrangements may be one way to match cows to feed resources.

For South Dakota cattle producers challenged by dwindling grazing resources, Krantz suggests they consider cow lease/share arrangements as an alternative to herd liquidation.

"Cow lease/share arrangements offer a logistical solution in some instances for cattle producers with surplus grazing acres or winter feed and those who do not have those vital resources available to them," he says.

Krantz says contractual agreements are unique in almost every circumstance because of the individuality of management programs, herd genetics, cow frame size or long-term goals.


"Fundamentally, particularly in the case of share agreements, discussions begin with the identification of the contributions each party will provide in this cow partnership," he says.

From the owner's (lessor) viewpoint, those contributions usually include the cows themselves along with an accompanying health program and the bull power to service the cows.

"The latter is sometimes listed on the lessee side of the ledger instead depending on the desires and goals of both parties," Krantz says.

Determining a value

Inputs are typically listed as contributions from the lessee and might include feed, grazing acres, labor, equipment and facilities. When individual contribution values are tallied, some idea of the percentage of inputs each will provide can then serve as a guide for sharing the calf crop value.

Krantz says a common industry value used extensively in recent years is a 70 percent to 30 percent share arrangement where the cow owner receives 30 percent of the calf value at a designated date. In nearly all arrangements, the cow owner will receive all the cull cow proceeds.

"As these agreements are drafted, it is important for both parties to remember that this industry value may or may not fit every situation," Krantz says.

This standard usually implies that the agreement includes a time frame of one year that typically runs from October to October. Should that time frame vary, adjustments to the percentage of calf value shared may need to be altered as well.


Factors to consider

While this percentage may be the primary driver in the share arrangement, there are a number of additional factors that Krantz says need consideration as lessor/lease discussions continue including:

• All agreements should be in writing: While many business arrangements have been done on a handshake to the benefit of both parties, there are numerous examples of verbal agreements that have failed because the parties couldn't agree on exactly what had been agreed to. Having things in writing goes a long way to eliminate those problems.

• Start date/end date: As stated above, typical share agreements run from October to October but should be specifically documented in writing, regardless of what it is. That timeline should also include a date when the owner needs to take responsibility for his share of the calves.

• Bred Cows: Cows should be guaranteed pregnant when they arrive (if October start date).

• Cow numbers: On multiyear share agreements, is there a "minimum number" of cows guaranteed by the owner? (How are replacements handled?)

• Pregnancy test: Cows should be pregnancy-tested each fall to document nonbred individuals and eliminate winter feed costs involved with wintering them.

• Heifer development and/or backgrounding. If calves are to be backgrounded or heifers developed, a separate agreement needs to be made where the owner of the calves pays for the feed costs and yardage expenses. Combining this enterprise with the cow lease makes determining an equitable split of the calf crop much more difficult.


• Cow body condition score: Herd body condition score should be assigned to cows when care for them is transferred, so both parties are aware of the expectations for cow condition if the agreement is terminated at some point later. Use of a third party to assist both parties in that process is recommended.

• Death loss verification: Procedures utilized by insurance companies to verify cow death loss can be adopted and included in the cow share agreement. That typically involves the services of a licensed veterinarian with the expense normally assigned to the cow owner.

• Health programs: Expectations for herd health should be outlined in the agreement as well. Unique marketing programs sometimes have limitations on vaccines or treatment protocols making it essential to list them so they can be complied with. In addition, both party's veterinarians should be consulted for input, especially if the new environment is significantly different than the present one.

• Creep feeding: Creep feeding calves for some is a standard practice while other cattle producers prefer to forgo that management scheme. That decision should also be a part of the agreement. If it is utilized, creep expenses are normally shared in the same percentage as calf value is.

• Method of division: Next to agreeing on sharing of calf value, how that share is to be divided may deserve some serious consideration. When all the calves are sold at public auction, the process is simple mathematics. Where calves are designated for owner/operator possession, the process is something to be discussed thoroughly as the agreement is being prepared.

Cow lease/share arrangements may be a win-win scenario for cattle producers with cows and limited feed resources, Krantz says, especially grazing acres, and cattle producers who have the resources to meet those needs.

"However, only after establishing a business mindset and doing some personal homework are cow share agreements truly destined to be "win-win" for all involved." Krantz says.

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